Persistent Violators

Persistent violators of the rights of children in armed conflict are parties to conflict who have been named and listed by the Secretary-General for five years or more in his annual report on children and armed conflict.

Sanctions against persistent perpetrators

The Special Representative advocates for the adoption of sanctions by the Security Council on military and political leaders of these groups in order to end impunity and to prevent the commission of these violations. As of today, two persons in Côte d’Ivoire and 14 individuals in the Democratic Republic of the Congo have been sanctioned for grave violations committed against children.

More has to be done to strengthen the sanctions regime against recalcitrant violators including through closer cooperation between the Security Council Working Group on Children and Armed Conflict and sanctions committees.

List of persistent perpetrators

Situations on the agenda of the Security Council

    Parties in Afghanistan

  • Taliban forces, including the Tora Bora Front, the Jamat Sunat al-Dawa Salafia and the Latif Mansur Network (a, b,d)

    Parties in the Central African Republic

  • Front démocratique du peuple centrafricain (FDPC) (a)
  • Union des forces démocratiques pour le rassemblement (UFDR), as part of the Séléka coalition. This party has concluded an action plan with the United Nations in line with Security Council resolutions 1539 (2004) and 1612 (2005). (a)

    Parties in Chad

  • National Army of Chad. This party has concluded an action plan with the United Nations in line with Security Council resolutions 1539 (2004) and 1612 (2005). (a)

    Parties in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

  • Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (FARDC). This party has concluded an action plan with the United Nations in line with Security Council resolutions 1539 (2004) and 1612 (2005). (a, c)
  • Forces démocratiques de libération du Rwanda (FDLR) (a, c, d)

    Parties in Myanmar

  • Democratic Karen Benevolent Army (DKBA) (a)
  • Kachin Independence Army (KIA) (a)
  • Karen National Liberation Army (KNLA). This party has sought to conclude an action plan with the United Nations in line with Security Council resolutions 1539 (2004) and 1612 (2005), but the United Nations has been prevented from doing so by the Government of Myanmar (a)
  • Karen National Liberation Army Peace Council (a)
  • Karenni Army (KA). This party has sought to conclude an action plan with the United Nations in line with Security Council resolutions 1539 (2004) and 1612 (2005), but the United Nations has been prevented from doing so by the Government of Myanmar (a)
  • Shan State Army South (SSA-S) (a)
  • Tatmadaw Kyi, including integrated border guard forces.a This party has concluded an action plan with the United Nations in line with Security Council resolutions 1539 (2004) and 1612 (2005). (a)
  • United Wa State Army (UWSA) (a)

    Parties in Somalia

  • Al-Shabaaba (a, b)
  • Somali National Armed Forces. This party has concluded an action plan with the United Nations in line with Security Council resolutions 1539 (2004) and 1612 (2005) (a,b)

    Parties in the Sudan

  • Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) (a)
  • Pro-Government militias (a)
  • Sudan Liberation Army/Abdul Wahid (a)
  • Sudan Liberation Army/Minni Minawi (a)
  • Sudan Liberation Army/Mother Wing (Abu Gasim) (a)

    Parties in South Sudan

  • Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA). This party has concluded an action plan with the United Nations in line with Security Council resolutions 1539 (2004) and 1612 (200 (a, b)

Situations not on the agenda of the Security Council or other situations

    Parties in Colombia

  • Ejército de Liberación Nacional (ELN) (a)
  • Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia — Ejército del Pueblo (FARC-EP) (a)

    Parties in the Philippines

  • Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG) (a)
  • Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF). This party has concluded an action plan with the United Nations in line with Security Council resolutions 1539 (2004) and 1612 (2005) (a)
  • New People’s Army (NPA) (a)
(*) The parties underlined have been in the annexes for at least five years and are therefore considered persistent perpetrators.(a) Parties that recruit and use children.(b) Parties that kill and maim children.(c) Parties that commit rape and other forms of sexual violence against children.(d) Parties that engage in attacks on schools and/or hospitals.