Grave Violations

Recruitment and use
children (260 boys, 20 girls)
Killing and maiming
(65 killed – 104 maimed; 119 boys – 48 girls – 3 sex unknown)
Sexual violence
children (1 girl, 0 boys)
(14 schools, 13 hospitals)
children (22 boys, 2 girls)
verified incidents

*The information below is based on the Report of the Secretary-General on children and armed conflict (A/76/871-S/2022/493) issued on 11 July 2022. Violations that occurred in previous years but were verified in 2021 have been included in the totals above.

Developments & Concerns


  • Intention of the Tatmadaw to continue implementing the 2012 joint action plan on the recruitment and use of children.
  • Implementation of the joint action plan on the recruitment and use of children by the Democratic Karen Benevolent Army (DKBA).
  • Engagement between KIA and the United Nations, leading to the release of 13 children.


  • Continued high number of children used, predominantly in Rakhine.
  • Surge in the number of attacks targeting children.
  • Violations against children resulting from the military takeover by the Tatmadaw, including the killing and maiming of children, as well as the attacks on and the use of schools and hospitals.
  • Spread of clashes in new areas and the multiplication of the number of armed groups.
  • Ongoing grave violations and the increase in abductions and attacks on schools and hospitals by all parties to the conflict, and the increase in the military use of schools and hospitals.
  • Increased casualties caused by explosive remnants of war, improvised explosive devices and landmines.
  • Increase in the number of cases of detention of children, and their being denied due process, as well as cases of torture and mistreatment of children.
  • Severe and increased restrictions to humanitarian access


To the Government:

  • To implement all activities of the joint action plan, in close cooperation with the United Nations, in order to immediately cease the use of children and prevent their recruitment and use.
  • To comply with their obligations under international humanitarian law and international human rights law.
  • To sign a joint action plan with the United Nations to end and prevent the killing and maiming of children and the perpetration of sexual violence against children.
  • To hold perpetrators accountable and for all parties and those with influence over parties to end and prevent violations.
  • To implement the 2019 Child Rights Law.
  • To immediately release detained children and recall that children should be treated primarily as victims.

To All Parties:

  • To allow and facilitate safe, timely, and unimpeded humanitarian access to children by the Tatmadaw, as well as all other parties.