At the heart of the achievements of the children and armed conflict mandate are the coordinated efforts that have allowed for the work of individual actors to be multiplied.
Group of Friends on children and armed conflict
Shortly after the creation of the mandate, an informal group of Member States called “Friends of the Special Representative” was created in New York to provide support to the mandate. This group is now called the Group of Friends on children and armed conflict and continues to play an important role. In the past few years, additional Groups of Friends have been established in Geneva, Afghanistan, the Philippines, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Sudan. In the field, the groups help Member States coordinate their action.
The UN Security Council meets on July 9, 2018 for an open debate on children and armed conflict. Photo: UN Photo
Security Council Working Group on children and armed conflict
In July 2005, following the adoption of Security Council resolution 1612, the Security Council Working Group on Children and Armed Conflict was established. It is currently chaired by Norway.
2005 – Security Council Resolution 1612
Endorses the Monitoring and Reporting Mechanism (MRM) proposed by the Secretary-General to collect timely and reliable information on violations committed against children affected by armed conflict. The Security Council creates a subsidiary body, the Security Council Working Group on Children and Armed Conflict to review information provided by the Monitoring and Reporting Mechanism on country situations and to make recommendations to the Council on measures to promote the protection of children affected by armed conflict.
By establishing this subsidiary body, the Security Council reaffirmed its commitment to provide strong tools to support the mandate and to ensure continued contact with the Special Representative. The Working Group receives quarterly global updates and regular comprehensive reports on country-specific situations. After country reports are submitted by the Secretary-General, the Working Group makes recommendations to parties to conflict, Governments and donors, as well as United Nations actors, on measures to end violations and promote the protection of war-affected children.
To date, the Working Group has reviewed and issued recommendations on over 50 country-specific reports, which have generated tangible advances in often challenging situations for the protection of children. The Working Group has also been proactive in its work on children and armed conflict, including through visiting countries on the agenda, organizing informal briefings from experts on issues related to child protection, and holding video-teleconferences with United Nations child protection staff in the field.
The positive impact of the efforts of the Working Group has been demonstrated over the years, notably by including the protection of children affected by war in all relevant aspects of the work and resolutions of the Security Council.
There have been eight Presidents of the Working Group: France, Mexico, Germany, Luxembourg, Malaysia, Sweden, Belgium and Norway. The mandate was strengthened under each presidency, new triggers for listing were added, support was given for the campaigns “Children, Not Soldiers” and ACT to Protect and resolutions evolved to address grave violations, the respect of international law and issues such as reintegration, impunity and the possibility of sanctions against perpetrators.
Working with regional and sub-regional organizations
Working with regional organizations has been a key element to expand the reach and effectiveness of the tools that were already in place.
A partnership with the African Union came to fruition in 2013, with the signing of a cooperation agreement between the Special Representative and the Peace and Security Council. Since then, the African Union has been fully engaged in mainstreaming the issue of children and armed conflict in its work and policies. The organization also holds annual sessions dedicated to children affected by war.
Another region where a partnership was sought to reduce the impact of conflict on children is the Middle East and North Africa. In 2014, the League of Arab States (LAS) and the Office of the Special Representative signed a cooperation agreement to develop and implement a child protection policy.
Collaboration with the European Union (EU) was also strengthened. The EU has a long-standing relationship with the Office of the Special Representative, which has contributed to the elaboration and implementation of a strong EU policy on the protection of children affected by war. As a key interlocutor who engages in human rights dialogue and capacity-building with the majority of countries on the children and armed conflict agenda, the organization’s support contributes to the implementation of the mandate.
Building on existing work with the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was another priority because of the alliance’s leverage to improve the protection of children in areas where they have operations, notably in Afghanistan. In the past few years, in consultation with the Special Representative’s Office, NATO has developed and adopted a child protection policy and guidelines for its forces on the ground, dedicated resources to mainstream the agenda in its work generally and is embarking on a training for troops on children and armed conflict.